These reactions are explained in Maitland Jones 2nd ed., §9.1
In this four-dimensional example we show a general addition reaction: the chlorohydrin formation of E-2-pentene.
The first step is the formation of a chloronium ion, followed by the attack of water from the opposite side of the molecule. So this is an example of an anti addition.
The remaining pages are about the stereochemistry of the products formed.
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